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home | FREE Preview | What Cutting-Edge Scientific Researc . . .
 





What Cutting-Edge Scientific Research Says About Fat Loss

By Tom Venuto
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Research & Science Forum FREE Samples!

Below you will find samples from our new research and science members-only forum. Unlimited access to hundreds of these research reviews is included with Burn The Fat Inner Circle membership.



RESEARCH & SCIENCE FORUM FREE SAMPLE #1: The effect of food form on appetite and calorie intake

Although there is considerable debate on this subject, at least 7 previous studies have provided evidence that energy containing beverages (ie "liquid calories") do not properly activate the satiety mechanism in the body and do not satisfy the appetite as well as food in solid form

Other research supports a positive association between calorie-containing beverage consumption and increased body weight or body mass index. The obese may be at particular risk of positive energy balance if they drink a lot of calorie-containing beverages.

The primary source of liquid calories in the United States Diet is carbohydrate, namely soda. Now running a close second are specialty and dessert coffees (be careful at Starbucks - better to stick with plain, calorie free coffee, or tea).

Unlike some of the previous studies, this one set out to compare solid and beverage forms of foods composed primarily of carbohydrate, fat or protein in order to document the independent effect of food form in foods with different dominant macronutrient sources.

Based on previous research, some experts have recommended targeting specific beverages as being "worse" than others. High fructose corn syrup and soda has been singled out the most. There's no question that soda is on top of the "hit list," by virtue of the amounts and frequency of typical consumption alone. However, this recent study says that from a pure energy balance perspective, we should be cautious about all liquid calories.

Fruit juice for example, is an obvious improvement over soda. However, when fruit juice is compared to an equal amount of calories from whole fruit, the whole fruit satisfies appetite better (largely due to the fiber content), and so you tend to eat fewer calories for the day. The liquid form does not satisfy the appetite as well, so you tend to eat more calories for the day.

Were you to meticulously track your calories and control intake, there would be little or no difference in calorie intake and therefore body composition, but that's not what usually happens in free-living humans. Our mistake is that we tend to drink calories IN ADDITION TO our usual food intake, not instead of it (think about what happens in restaurants when there are free refills or in bars when your friends are buying).

[On an interesting side note, soup does not seem to apply; soup has higher satiety value than calorie containing beverages, possibly for mere cognitive reasons.]

With all three macronutrients - protein, carbs or fat - daily calorie intake was significantly greater when the beverage form was consumed as compared to the solid. (yes, even protein drinks)

While you would think that protein drinks are purely a good thing, (a proven benefit of protein foods is they reduce appetite and increase satiety), when you turn a solid protein food into a drink it usually loses it's appetite suppressive properties. So you even have to be cautious with protein drinks - they are not "free" calories.

Another finding of the study was that there was no difference between lean and obese people regarding the effects of liquid calories.

Why do liquid calories fail to elicit the same response as whole foods? reasons include:

  • lower satiety value
  • lower demand for oral processing
  • shorter gastrointestinal transit times
  • energy in beverages has greater bioaccessibility and bioavailability
  • mechanisms may include cognitive, orosensory, digestive, metabolic,
  • endorcrine and neural influences (human appetite is a complex thing!!!)

Bottom line: If your goal is fat loss, don't drink your calories. If you do, you must account for those calories and be sure you don't drink them in addition to your usual food intake.

This particular study also suggests you make an effort to moderate liquid calories of ALL types (not just carbohydrate sources such as soda)

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ABSTRACT

Effects of food form on appetite and energy intake in lean and obese young adults. International Journal of Obesity. 2007 Nov;31(11):1688-95. Mourao DM, Bressan J, Campbell WW, Mattes RD. Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent effect of food form on appetite and energy intake in lean and obese adults using high carbohydrate, fat or protein food stimuli. DESIGN: Crossover dietary challenge with matched beverage and solid food forms: high carbohydrate (watermelon and watermelon juice); high protein (cheese and milk); high fat (coconut meat and coconut milk). A total of 120 lean (18-23 kg/m(2); N=60) and obese (30-35 kg/m(2); N=60) adults (18-50 years old) with stable body weight. Forty different participants (N=20 lean and 20 obese) were tested with each of the food systems.

MEASUREMENTS: Appetitive sensations, food palatability and dietary intake.

RESULTS: Regardless of the predominant energy source, the beverage food form elicited a weaker compensatory dietary response than the matched solid food form. Thus, total daily energy intake was significantly higher by 12.4, 19 and 15% on days the beverage forms of the high-carbohydrate, -fat and -protein foods were ingested, respectively. This was due more to a weak effect on satiety than satiation. The obese participants had higher energy intake at the lunch, including the beverage high-protein load, but overall differences between lean and obese participants were small and not systematic.

CONCLUSION: Food rheology exerts an independent effect on energy intake. Dietary compensation for beverages is weaker than for solid food forms of comparable nutrient content. Thus, they pose a greater risk for promoting positive energy balance

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RESEARCH & SCIENCE FORUM FREE SAMPLE #2: The influence of sleep and sleep loss upon food intake and metabolism

It's been suggested frequently throughout fitness and diet literature that lack of sleep can contribute to weight gain. There is a lot of confusion however, about the mechanism. It's not uncommon for people to believe there is a cause - effect relationship between sleeping less and gaining weight. However, if that were the case then you would always gain weight if you slept less. To the contrary if you sleep less AND eat less, rest assured you will lose weight. Almost all the research on this subject has been cross sectional and therefore does not prove causality.

Research suggests that the likely explanation for a mechanism is a disruption in hormones which can affect appetite and food intake so you are more likely to eat more when you are sleep deprived. Specifically, sleep deprivation can reduce leptin (the anti starvation hormone, also known as an anorexigenic hormone) and an increase in ghrelin, a gastric hormone that increases hunger.

In addition, one thing not mentioned in this study is that when hormones are out of balance, that can affect nutrient paritioning. Nutrient paritioning refers to where the energy comes from when you have a deficit - fat or lean tissue - and where the energy goes when you are in a surplus - fat or lean tissue. So, when hormones are impacted negatively by sleep deprivation it is entirely possibly that you are more likely to add fat when in a surplus (not muscle) and lose muscle (not fat) when in a deficit.

This study also points out that there may also be health issues related to blood sugar regulation when you are sleep deprived.

Some people seem to get by with less sleep than others (I know many people, myself included, who excel physically on 6-7 hours a night), but in light of data such as this, if in doubt, it's surely better to err on the side of a little more sleep than a little less sleep.

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ABSTRACT

The influence of sleep and sleep loss upon food intake and metabolism Nutrition Research Reviews, Dec 2007, 20:195-212, Cibele Aparecida Crispima, et al. Psychobiology Department, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

The present review investigates the role of sleep and its alteration in triggering metabolic disorders. The reduction of the amount of time sleeping has become an endemic condition in modern society and the current literature has found important associations between sleep loss and alterations in nutritional and metabolic aspects. Studies suggest that individuals who sleep less have a higher probability of becoming obese. It can be related to the increase of ghrelin and decrease of leptin levels, generating an increase of appetite and hunger. Sleep loss has been closely associated with problems in glucose metabolism and a higher risk for the development of insulin resistance and diabetes, and this disturbance may reflect decreased efficacy of the negative-feedback regulation of the hypothalamic--pituitary--adrenal axis. The period of sleep is also associated with an increase of blood lipid concentrations, which can be intensified under conditions of reduced sleep time, leading to disorders in fat metabolism. Based on a review of the literature, we conclude that sleep loss represents an important risk factor for weight gain, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidaemia. Therefore, an adequate sleep pattern is fundamental for the nutritional balance of the body and should be encouraged by professionals in the area.

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